Correcting respirable photometric particulate measurements using a gravimetric sampling method
According to the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act of 2004 people have the right to clean air and a healthy environment. Particulate matter (PM) emissions pose a significant health threat. Both indoor and ambient air pollution contribute to the burden of disease associated with poor air quality. This is particularly true within the South African setting where low income households make use of different solid fuels for heating and cooking purposes resulting in high levels of PM emissions. This paper focuses on the evaluation mass concentration measurements recorded by continuous photometric PM instruments within KwaDela, a low income settlement in Mpumalanga located on the South African Highveld. Thus, obtaining a photometric calibration factor for both the DustTrak Model 8530 and the SidePak AM510. Sampling took place during August 2014 for a period of seven days. The photometric and gravimetric instruments were collocated within the indoor environment of selected households. These instruments were all fitted with 10mm Dorr-Oliver Cyclone inlets to obtain the respirable (PM4) cut-point. The study found that both instruments tend to overestimate the indoor particulate mass concentrations when compared to the reference gravimetric method. The estimated photometric calibration factors for the DustTrak Model 8530 and SidePak AM510 are 0.14 (95%Cl: 0.09, 0.15) and 0.24 (95%Cl: 0.16, 0.30) respectively. The overestimation of the photometric measurements is rather significant. It is therefore important that the correction factors are applied to data collected in indoor environments prone to the combustion of solid fuels. The correction factors obtained from this and other studies vary as a result of the environment (ambient, indoor etc.) as well as the aerosol size fraction and the origin thereof. Thus, it is important to considered site specific calibration factors when implementing these photometric light-scattering instruments.
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